FIRST NAME

LAST NAME


Eastern Slovakia
Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn Genealogical Research


Slovinky, Slovakia

We are looking to start a gathering point for families from Slovinky, Slovakia.

My family data consists of information gleaned for four family lines in the Slovinky church Matriky. I know the surnames of most of the families in that town since about 1752 to 1929. I have xeroxed birth and marriage records for intervals in the early 1800's so I can look for specific persons in that time window.

Slovinky was a Carpatho-Rusyn village just over the mountain from Porac. The Kranyak, Litska, Stecz, Uhrin, Olsavsky, Kovalchik, and other families had members living in both villages.

We now have two CD's by Slovinka zo Sloviniek with the traditional folk music of Slovinky available.

The town of Slovinky goes by that single name only in recent times. From the 1750's to at least 1930 Slovinky consisted to two locations about a mile apart. Upper Slovinky lay at the head of the valley extending up to the SW from Krompachy. The Slovinky River flows to the NE in that valley and gives it its name, Dolina Slovinka. The copper mines that were worked by the inhabitants of Upper Slovinky were on both sides of the river at the SW end of town.

Lower Slovinky lay about a mile downstream of Upper Slovinky. The inhabitants of Lower Slovinky mainly were farmers, but a few were miners too. More miners lived in Upper Slovinky.

The two towns were named Felso (Upper) Slovinky and Also ( Lower) Slovinky during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (ca 1620 to CA 1920) when the Hungarian language was used.

The name of Upper and Lower Slovinky became Felso Szalank and Also Szalank in 1907. They are shown that way on the Austro-Hungarian Military Map of the region that was used to the end of WW I. The Hungarian names for the Slovinkys appear in the death records in the Slovinky Greek Catholic Church Matriky from 1907 to 1918 (the end of the death records on microfilm). It seems to have been the doing of Hungarian officials.

After World War I the Slovak spellings were adopted: Visne Slovinky and Nisne Slovinky (there are hacheks over the s in each) for Upper and Lower Slovinky. These names are found in the records of the Slovinky Greek Catholic Church (on LDS microfilms 1791524, 25, 26 &27).

The first names of persons listed in the Church records are given in a latinized form at first. Later when priests were required to keep their records in Hungarian the names appear in Hungarian. After liberation from the Hungarians, Slovak forms of the names appear.

Here are some examples one can encounter:

Latin           Hungarian       Slovak

Maria           Maria           Maria
Anna            Anna            Anna
Elisabetha      Erzebet         Elizabetha
                                Alzbeta
Catharina       Katalin         Catherina
                                Katarina
Andreas         Endre           Andras
                                Andrej
Stephanus       Ystvan          Stephan
                                Stefan
Michael         Michaly         Michael
                                Michal
Nicolaus        Miklos          Nicolai
                                Mikolai
Joannes         Janos           Jan
Helena          Ilona           Helena
Georgius        Gyorgy          George
                                Juraj
Mathias         Matyas          Matyas
                                Matej
Petrus          Peter           Petro
Josephus        Josef           Joseph
                                Jozef

Occasionally an"i" is substituted for a "y" in both first names and surnames. Spelling was often at the discretion of the Priest writing the records.

The Hungarian entries in the Matriky (root of english word, "matriculate) can be pronounced using the following rules:

Hungarian        English

c & cz           ts   (in pits)
cs               ch   (in church)
zs               zh   (g in rouge)
sz                s   (in so)
s                sh   (in shop)
ly                l   (in pavilion)
j                 y   (in yes)
gy               dg   (in edge)
ny                n   (first n in onion)
ds & dzs          j   (in jug)
a                aw   (a in raw)
a'               ay   (in pay)
e                 a   (in hat)
e'                a   (in ate)
i                 i   (in sin)
i'               ee   (in peek)
o                 o   (in cow)
o'                o   (in go)
o with 2 dots    er
o with "        err   (trilled)
u                 u   (in bull)
u'                u   (in rule)
u with either
.. or " over it       (like German u with umlaut)
or                u   (in beautiful)

All other letters pronounced as in english.

Perhaps someone could provide a similar pronouncer for Slovak as well.

Units of time in Hungarian might not be familiar to most persons just starting out research in the Slovinky Matriky. Here is what you will find in death records and, to a lesser extent, in marriage records between 1844 & 1851 and between 1887 & 1918:

Hungarian                English

eves                     years
honap                    month
hetes                    weeks
napas                    days
ovatalt                  hour

I am not entirely sure about the word for hour. One spelling seems to be ovangelt. Maybe someone can provide the correct spelling.

Here is a partial list of surnames that I extracted from the Matriky of the Greek Catholic Church in Slovinky. These are most of the names related in some way to the four families that I am researching: VESELENAK, PATSAN, ZMIJ AND BRUTOVSKY.

                           OCCURRENCES
SURNAME                    MEN     WOMEN     TOTAL
Andrejkovics                 1         4         5
Andrykovich                  1         5         6
Andrykovics                  0         1         1
Babjarcsik                   0         1         1
Bacsa                        0         1         1
Bakos                        1         1         2
Banas                        0         1         1
Bancko                       1         0         1
Barbusa                      0         2         2
Baricsko                     2         1         3
Belinszky                    1         0         1
Belinszy                     2         1         3
Bencko                      17         3        20
Benckova                     0         3         3
Bencsko                      2         4         6
Benyo                        1         0         1
Bobovich                     2         1         3
Bondur                       0         1         1
Bonjas                       0         1         1
Bonyko                       1         0         1
Bosak                        2         0         2
Brutovsky                   72        56       128
Bryant                       1         0         1
Burcsak                      0         1         1
Butvin                       0         1         1
Cernak                       2         0         2
Cernakova                    0         2         2
Csipkar                      1         2         3
Csornik                      1         0         1
Csumik                       0         1         1
Dejmut                       1         0         1
Dejmuth                      0         1         1
Dolny                        4         6        10
Dorko                       11         4        15
Dorko-(Masek?)               0         1         1
Dorkova                      0         3         3
Dorosh                       1         1         2
Duda                         3         1         4
Dudas                        2         6         8
Dufala                       0         2         2
Dulin                        1         6         7
Duncan                       0         1         1
Dusbatsky                    1         1         2
Dyskova                      0         1         1
Dzoza                        0         1         1
Dzundza                      0         1         1
Dzurenkova                   0         1         1
Fabritska                    1         1         2
Fajfer                       0         1         1
Falatas                      1         1         2
Fender                       1         1         2
Ferencz                      4         5         9
Frantz                       1         1         2
Gondza                       0         1         1
Gondzko                      0         1         1
Gonga                        2         0         2
Grabany                      4         4         8
Grisak                      14        11        25
Gyorko                       3         4         7
Hachovsky                    0         2         2
Hacsavsky                    0         1         1
Hadbavny                     0         1         1
Halcsin                      2         0         2
Hodermarsky                  3         0         3
Homolos                      1         0         1
Homulos                      0         1         1
Horvath                      1         0         1
Horvathova                   0         2         2
Hrudka                       1         1         2
Hudak                        7        11        18
Hudakova                     0         1         1
Hvisdos                      2         2         4
Ivantso                     19        19        38
Jabloncikova                 0         1         1
Jakubyansky                  0         1         1
Janosik                      9         2        11
Janovsky                     0         1         1
Janycos                      1         1         2
Jaradny                      1         1         2
Jaros                        0         1         1
Kakalachik                   0         1         1
Kakalesak                    1         0         1
Kalas                        3         9        12
Kalyash                      1         2         3
Kalyasz                      4         1         5
Karol                        4         1         5
Karolchik                    1         1         2
Karolcsik                    2         3         5
Karolczik                    1         0         1
Klecsa                       0         1         1
Klembarsky                   1         1         2
Kletsa                       1         1         2
Kondracin                    0         1         1
Kopasa                       2         0         2
Kopnicka                     0         8         8
Kopnicky                     8         0         8
Kopniczky                    3         0         3
Kopniky                      1         0         1
Korchan                      0         1         1
Korfanta                     2         0         2
Kormas                       1         1         2
Kormos                       0         1         1
Korolchik                    1         0         1
Kostelnik                    0         2         2
Kovacs                       0         1         1
Kovalchik                   12        11        23
Kovalcsik                    3         1         4
Kravcsik                     1         0         1
Kraynak                      3         0         3
Kraynakova                   0         1         1
Kraynyak                     1         0         1
Kris'ak                      4         0         4
Kris'akova                   0         3         3
Kropinyak                    6         5        11
Lesn'akova                   0         1         1
Letok?                       0         1         1
Libertin                     3         4         7
Liska                        2         3         5
Loboda                       1         2         3
Lovas                        0         1         1
Lucacs                       0         1         1
Luchansky                    1         2         3
Machala                      0         1         1
Machusko                     3         2         5
Mackoviakova                 0         1         1
Macsik                       0         1         1
Magerko                      8         3        11
Magyar                       0         1         1
Malyar                       1         0         1
Manyovsky                    6         1         7
Maras                        9         8        17
Marasova                     0         1         1
Marasz                       4         1         5
Marniyach-sp?                0         1         1
Mars'alek                    5         0         5
Marsalek                     3         0         3
Marschall                    2         1         3
Marschallova                 0         1         1
Maryovsky                    0         2         2
Masek                        0         2         2
Matsek                       1         0         1
Matzik                       1         1         2
Melich                       1         0         1
Michlyan                     0         1         1
Mihalcin                     1         0         1
Mikitovich                   2         1         3
Mikolaichik                  0         1         1
Misikar                      2         1         3
Mizigar                      0         1         1
Mizikar                      2         1         3
Miziker                     11        10        21
Mizsigar                     4         1         5
Mnich                        9         8        17
Mnich-Szeman                 0         1         1
Mnichova                     0         2         2
Moflyar                      1         4         5
Negrey                       7         9        16
Novatny                      1         1         2
Novotny                      8         5        13
Olsavsky                     4         2         6
Ondik                        3         0         3
Ondikova                     0         1         1
Ondova                       0         1         1
Ontko                        6         4        10
Pachuta                      0         1         1
Pacit                        1         0         1
Palecsko                     0         1         1
Palencsar                    0         1         1
Palentsar                    2         0         2
Pancula                      1         1         2
Patchan                      6         0         6
Patchanova                   0         3         3
Patchen                     50        54       104
Patsan                     148       141       289
Perhach                     17         8        25
Perhachova                   0         3         3
Perhacs                      3         2         5
Petras                       4         5         9
Petruna                      0         1         1
Petrunya                     4         1         5
Petrunyova                   0         1         1
Pincsatz                     0         1         1
Pindroch                     0         1         1
Pliaczky                     2         1         3
Podraczky                    0         1         1
Pojucuk-sp?                  0         1         1
Popovich                     0         1         1
Poraczki                     0         1         1
Pratchko                     0         1         1
Prindroch                    1         0         1
Prindros                     0         1         1
Putanko                      1         1         2
Repaska                      0         3         3
Repasky                     24        17        41
Ribar                        4         7        11
Roman                        4        13        17
Rucsin                       1         2         3
Rudujansky                   0         1         1
Rusbaczky                    0         1         1
S'oms'ak                     2         0         2
S'oms'akova                  0         1         1
Sadvak                       0         1         1
Sadvar                       4         2         6
Sakacs                       4         2         6
Seman                        1         1         2
Semanova                     0         3         3
Semchee                      1         1         2
Simko                        3         1         4
Siska                        4         0         4
Siskova                      0         1         1
Skoc'ovska                   0         1         1
Skoc'ovsky                   2         0         2
Skonyar                      0         1         1
Slacka                       0         1         1
Slacsky                      0         1         1
Slaczky?                     1         0         1
Slezak                       3         0         3
Slosky                       0         1         1
Slovinsky                    3         3         6
Smee                         3         3         6
Smy                          2         1         3
Soltesz                      2         1         3
Soltis                       2         1         3
Somszky                      0         1         1
Spegar                       1         4         5
Starenky                     1         1         2
Stasko                       7         4        11
Stecz                        3         5         8
Stefanchik                   2         0         2
Stetz                        0         1         1
Stofanik                     1         1         2
Sulick                      16         7        23
Sulin                        2         0         2
Supina                       7         6        13
Szakacs                      0         2         2
Szakacz                      2         2         4
Szeman                       1         0         1
Szlifka                      2         1         3
Szliska                      0         1         1
Troyan                       0         1         1
Uhrin                        5         6        11
Urdak                        3         0         3
Valyko                       1         0         1
Varga                        2         0         2
Veselenak                   60        51       111
Veseleniak                   1         1         2
Veselenik                    4         1         5
Veselenyak                 200       175       375
Veselenyk                    1         0         1
Visocky                      2         1         3
Visosky                      1         1         2
Vojacek                      3         2         5
Voytko                       1         0         1
Vrabely                      1         0         1
Zmij                       164       168       332
Zofcin                       1         1         2
Zubach                       3         2         5
Note that I have included several spellings of some names to reflect how they actually appear in the Matriky.

I will add to the list as my research continues.

I think it would be useful to generate a Latin - Hungarian - Slovak - English (and maybe German) lexicon of terms and phrases found in the church records (Matriky) in eastern Slovakia. I have a few items to contribute there. For example in early entries the dates are given as a number (with grammatical ending) for the day and recognizable names of months from Jan to Aug but then the number 7 (with ending) for September, 8 for October, 9 for November and 10 for December. Actually it all makes sense but it was confusing when I first encountered it.

From the 1820's on, the cause of death is listed in the death records of Slovinky. The names of the diseases are in Latin initially, then in Hungarian. I could figure out that cholera is just that, morbilli is measles, phtysis is tuberculosis, variola is smallpox, but the rest are not certain to me: tussis for whooping cough?, hydrops for rabies?, febris is fever but what is febris nervosa? - nervous fever?

Then there's diffantheria and disentheria with seemingly obvious translations but how about hectica, phrensis, cathar, tumor and apopletia? I think the last two are pneumonia and stroke.

I have a Hungarian dictionary and I have hacked out some translations of disease names listed in the Matriky from Slovinky. I cannot vouch for the accuracy of these -- they are my best guess. Many of these are spelled with diacritical marks over the vowels. These marks are omitted here.

If anyone wants to E-mail their translations or add new words, I'll maintain a list that can be posted periodically. This is what we have so far:

The marginal notes & comments in the Matriky can be perplexing. I am not a Latin scholar so I must ignore a lot of it, but I am sure there are important data there. For example, exactly how is the term alias (abbreviated al) to be translated? I mean, which is the real name and which is the alias in: Mike Vorbely al Hudak? How would that be expressed in Hungarian? What does the use of this structure imply? An adoption?, a self-assumed nom de plume or a strongly persistent local nickname?

Regarding the question of an alias or a double surname one finds in the church records:

This quote from "In search of your European roots" by Angus Baxter published in Baltimore (1988) might provide an explanation

"the surname would be changed if the father changed farms, and if he inherited a farm through his wife he could change his name to hers. It was all very complicated, but such changes are usually recorded in the matriky by hypenating the names together (the family and any other) or by the use of the word 'kdysi" or "vulga," which roughly translated means "also known as." (not to mention "alias" or "al")

At times, the surname of the wife would be added to the surname of the husband if there were no descendents on the wife's side to carry on her family surname. A friend of mine who is a Byzantine Catholic priest told this to me while I was doing some research.

This information was forwarded to us by Nicholas Patchan.

From 1880 to 1900 nearly 40 % of the male population of Slovinky emigrated to the USA and settled in and around three towns in Guernsey County Ohio to work in the newly opened coal mines. The towns were Pleasant City, Byesville and Trail Run.

The exodus, impact and aftermath of that massive migration is chronicled in a 603-page book by Dr. Lorle Porter, Professor of Medieval History at Muskingum College. The book has an extensive surname index listing families for which information was provided by respondents to Dr Porter's research. The book is illustrated by pertinent maps and many photographs.

This book may be obtained by sending a check for $29.00 to: Dr. Lorle Porter, Muskingum College, New Concord Ohio 43762.

Julianna Romanova and Pavel Bencko-Maras wrote a cookbook based on old Slovinky recipes from Maria Benacko's kitchen (their grandmother) in Slovinky about 1900. Their parents came from Slovinky about 1910.

A 137 page Slovak/Rusin cook book entitled "Slovenske Jedlo and Pennsylvania Slovak Soul Food" ( In English with Slovak titles) by Julianna Romanova and Pavel Bencko-Maras is available for $11.00. These recipies are based on recipes originally from Grandma Maria Bencko's kitchen in Slovinky, Slovakia with later additions by our mother in the Pennsylvania mining towns. Please send check to: Morris publishers, 99 State Rt 149, Lake George, NY. For more information visit the Slovak Book Shop.

Here is a list of other maps of Slovakia that show the location of Slovinky.

The LDS FHC can provide a fiche of a map of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire at a scale of 1:75000. Most of Slovakia on fiches No. 6000227 through 6000255. Each fiche has 6 map sheets on it. The index to all the maps is on fiche 6000198. The name of the map is:

Militar Landesaufnahme und Special Karte de Ostereichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie 1879 -1928

The maps are named according to the largest town in each quadrangle. Slovinky is on the Iglo quadrangle. The maps show topography as an elaborately drafted scheme of hachures and reference contour lines. Individual houses, churches, mines and the elevation (in meters) of prominent peaks are among the wealth of information on these maps.

Perhaps the most valuable aspect of this map is the naming of most towns in their Slovak, Hungarian and Austrian or German equivalents. This is quite valuable for folks trying to find the birthplace of their great grandfather with only the anecdotal information that he was from Also Szalank (actually this is Lower Slovinky), for example. That old Hungarian name just doesn't appear on maps today.

A contemporary road map of Slovakia (with an Index) that is quite detailed was published 8/93 by Kartografische Anstalt Freytag & Berndt u. Artaria 1071 Wien. It is at a scale of 1:50000. Topography is shown by gray shading. It costs about $9.00 from travel stores.

A 2-page map of Slovakia Published by the Carpatho-Rusyn Research Center, Box 131-B Orwell VT 05760 for $14.25.

A 3 ft by 5 ft map of Slovakia (Scale 1:360000) was published by the Slovak Institute at St Andrews Abbey 10510 Buckeye Road Cleveland Ohio 44104. Only major roads and rivers are shown besides the location and names of towns.

More later

William Anikouchine - email - wanik@juno.com

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